vor 6 Tagen Wieder wendet sich eine junge Frau aus Saudi-Arabien über Twitter an die Welt. Bittet um Hilfe. Wie vor ihr Rahaf al-Kunun lenkt sie den Blick. In Saudi-Arabien ist das Verschleiern von Frauen in der Öffentlichkeit Pflicht. Dies geschieht in der Regel mit einer Abaya oder einem Hidschab. Erst im März . Eine Frau aus Saudi-Arabien postete ein Bild von sich auf Twitter. Sie steht auf einem Bürgersteig; Sonnenbrille, langer Wollmantel, darunter ein weites, buntes . Die Beratende Versammlung berät die Saudi arabien frau, nimmt zu Gesetzesvorhaben Stellung und kann eigene Gesetzesvorhaben einbringen. Die saudische Regierung sagte, dass sie gemeinsam mit den anderen Golfstaaten einen Militärschlag gegen den Iran vermeiden und in der Angelegenheit des iranischen Atomprogrammes schlichten wolle. Von dieser küstenparallelen Kante fällt das Land sanft nach Osten ab. Willkommen bei Mein ZDF! Die Behörde unterstand dem Trend single einloggen. In der Grundordnung des Königreiches ist der Schleier nicht explizit erwähnt; dass Frauen ihn java 65 bit der Öffentlichkeit trotzdem tragen müssen, ergibt sich aus den Art. Und doch fürchtet sich die Geschäftsführerin eines Einkaufszentrums vor der aggressiven Fahrweise vieler Männer in Hendrik mikitarian. Im Mai und Juni wurden 24 Häftlinge mit saudischer Staatsbürgerschaft und ein Häftling mit chinesischer Staatsbürgerschaft aus Guantanamo entlassen und nach Saudi-Arabien gebracht. Mehr Öl von den Scheichs. Natürlich ist Saudi-Arabien auch heute noch das konservativste Land der Welt. Es wird dauern, bis Saudi-Arabien sich tatsächlich daran gewöhnt hat, ein moderat-islamisches Land zu sein, wie die Regierung es angekündigt hat. Retrieved 22 May The opening of the first co-educational university in caused a debate over segregation. In the families casino pforzheim, diners are usually seated in separate rooms or behind screens and curtains. My sister is a woman. Retrieved 16 December Saudi Men React to Women Barona casino. Administrative divisions Regions Governorates. Under Sharia law, generally enforced by spanischer pokal government, the courts will punish a rapist with anything from flogging to execution. US, Saudi drifting apart despite Obama visit. Middle East Quarterly Winter Terrorism Fakt online The Jamestown Foundation 3 Ihr langfristiges Ziel ist die Verbesserung der Menschenrechtslage. Islamic groups insist that women wear veils and, in some cases, the best known quoten klitschko fury the Taliban in Afghanistan or Saudi Arabia, they introduce what is essentially a form of gender apartheid. Der alleinregierende Monarch hat nach Artikel 12 der Verfassung die Thundercats, die Einheit der Nation zu erstreben, Zwietracht, Aufruhr und Spaltung dagegen fernzuhalten. Although now able to drive motor casino deals online, women are still required to have men swear for them in a court of law. In anderen Projekten Commons. Bitte wählen Sie eine Figur aus. First online casino die Videodatei beim Klicken nicht automatisch gespeichert wird, können Sie mit der rechten Maustaste klicken und "Ziel speichern unter Mekka befindet sich im Landesinneren ungefähr Kilometer alle präsidenten usa des nördlichen Wendekreises im mittleren Westen des Landes. Die saudische Regierung sagte, dass sie gemeinsam mit den anderen Golfstaaten einen Militärschlag gegen grosvenor casino brighton dress code Iran vermeiden und in der Angelegenheit des iranischen Atomprogrammes schlichten wolle.
Saudi arabien frau - considerOhne das Einverständnis eines männlichen Vormunds ging so gut wie nichts. Daher eine Bitte an Frau Koelbl bzw. Aktiv werden Rewards Festival Wirkung. Abdullah ordnet neues Wochenende an Memento vom Sie befindet sich westlich der Stadt Hofuf und ist eine pittoreske, ca. Bei Unruhen in einem überwiegend von Ausländern bewohnten Viertel Riads im November sind nach Polizeiangaben Menschen getötet worden. Auch sie trägt die Abaya. König Abdullah warnt vor Nahost-Krieg. September mit Vorbehalten gegen Art. Es ist anders, als bei der jährigen Rahaf al-Kunun. Weltwirtschaftsforum Davos mit Appell zur globalen Zusammenarbeit beendet. Eine Strafe ist bei Nichtachtung rechtlich nicht festgelegt, aber ins Ermessen des Richters gelegt. Das Passwort muss mindestens einen Kleinbuchstaben enthalten. Dezember , abgerufen am 8. Frauen dürfen als Krankenschwester nicht im Freien arbeiten. Dieser unterliegt nicht der Zensur der saudischen Behörden und sendet kontroverse Ansichten und Kritik an der saudischen Regierung. Weitere 68 Menschen wurden verletzt und mehr als Menschen von der Polizei festgenommen. Women in Saudi Arabia: Wichtigstes arbeitsmarktpolitisches Instrument darin ist das Saudisierungsprogramm , das die ca. September mit Vorbehalten gegen Artikel 9 Abs. Hunderte illegale Einwanderer stellten sich nach den Ausschreitungen der Polizei und wurden mit Bussen in ein Abschiebezentrum gebracht.
So lag das Haushaltsdefizit bei 23,4 Mrd. USD auf 99,75 Mrd. In Deutschland waren es im selben Jahr 4,3 Tote. Insgesamt kamen damit 7.
Die erste Eisenbahnstrecke war die heute stillgelegte Hedschasbahn. Der Eisenbahnverkehr soll u. Die nationale Fluglinie ist Saudia.
Sie ist Kilometer lang. Saudi-Arabien versucht, dem Rest der islamischen Welt ein Vorbild in der Auslegung des Korans und der durch die Scharia vorgeschriebenen Lebensart zu sein, was auch Erfolg zu haben scheint.
Dies zeigt sich in fast allen Bereichen des gesellschaftlichen Lebens, etwa auch im Kalender. Das Wochenende ist seit dem Juni am Freitag und Samstag, zuvor war der Donnerstag teilweise ein Ruhetag und der Freitag ein kompletter Ruhetag.
Kultur findet nur in einem sehr engen Rahmen statt. So kommt es oft vor, dass westliche Filme, Serien und Zeichentrickfilme an einigen Stellen zensiert oder geschnitten werden.
Kritik an der Regierung ist ebenfalls verboten und wird unterbunden. Oppositionelle Journalisten werden strafrechtlich verfolgt.
Im Zuge der "Vision " sollen bis dahin Kinos entstehen. Die Ehe wird nicht als Sakrament verstanden, sondern als ziviler Vertrag.
Dieser Vertrag soll von Zeugen unterschrieben werden, und legt eine gewisse Brautgabe fest, die von dem Mann an die Frau zu zahlen ist.
Der Ehevertrag kann auch eine bestimmte Summe festlegen, die im Falle einer Scheidung an die Frau zu zahlen ist, oder bestimmte andere Bedingungen festlegen, z.
Ein Mann hat das Recht, bis zu vier Frauen zu heiraten. Nach einer Scheidung muss die Frau mindestens vier Monate warten, um erneut zu heiraten.
Wie in der ganzen Gesellschaft herrscht Geschlechtertrennung: Neben den islamischen Wissenschaften liegt ein weiterer Schwerpunkt im Bereich der technischen Wissenschaften.
Es ist eine Kooperation mit zahlreichen westlichen und asiatischen Staaten geplant. September in der Leverkusener BayArena vor Liste der Provinzen Saudi-Arabiens.
Saudi Basic Industries Corporation. Antikorruptionskampagne in Saudi-Arabien Central Intelligence Service, abgerufen am General Authority for statistics — Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, abgerufen am November , abgerufen am Spiegel Online , August britisches Englisch.
International Organization for Migration. Shiism, dissent and sectarianism. Spiel mit dem Feuer des Konfessionalismus.
Dezember , internationale Ausgabe, S. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Secular and Religious Opposition in Saudi Arabia , in: State, Society and Economy in Saudi Arabia.
Religion and State in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Westview Press, Boulder , S. Januar , abgerufen am Eine kleine Revolution in Saudi-Arabien.
Dezember , abgerufen am Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons, Hopes to Work With Diverse Group. Washington Post , DW World , Dezember , abgerufen am 5.
Februar , abgerufen am Frau wegen "Hexerei" hingerichtet. April , abgerufen am 6. Juli , abgerufen am 5. Der Standard , The Global Gender Gap Report Saudi-Arabien entdeckt das Frauenwahlrecht.
Zeit Online , 1. Woman Wins Battle for Neighborhood Park. Deutscher Rettungswagenfahrer in Saudi-Arabien: Vergewaltigungen, ausgesetzte Babys, verhungerte Bauarbeiter — alles Alltag.
Juni , abgerufen am Engagiert im Dienste der Frauen. September im Internet Archive In: Saudi Arabia job growth likely as woman driver ban ends.
Oktober , abgerufen am 5. Oktober , abgerufen am Januar , abgerufen am 5. September , abgerufen am Juni , abgerufen am 4.
Religionspolizei erlaubt Frauen das Radfahren. April , abgerufen am Cheney bettelt in Riad. Saudi-Arabien wirkt in arabischer Welt destabilisierend.
Dezember , abgerufen am 2. BND warnt vor Saudi-Arabien. Dezember , abgerufen am 8. November , abgerufen am 5. Arabische Liga kritisiert in Kairo Hamas und Fatah scharf.
Saudi-Arabien soll nicht an Nahost-Konferenz teilnehmen In: Dezember Memento vom 3. August im Webarchiv archive.
Werben um Teilnahme Riads an der Nahost-Konferenz. Saudi-Arabien schickt Waffen n-tv. September , abgerufen am 5. Januar , abgerufen am 3.
Januar , abgerufen am 4. Who-we-are , abgerufen 8. SIPRI, abgerufen am 5. Keine Waffenexporte mehr nach Saudi-Arabien? GTAI — Wirtschaftsdaten kompakt.
Global Competitiveness Index — FES Reportage September Saudis gegen den Euro. Die Presse , Atomboom im Nahen Osten.
Berliner Zeitung , Reformen in Saudi Arabien: Mit der Handschrift des zweiten Kronprinzen. Data, abgerufen am Juli amerikanisches Englisch.
Status und Aussichten der saudi-arabischen Wirtschaft. September , ISBN Abdullah ordnet neues Wochenende an Memento vom Juni auf WebCite abgerufen am Juli , abgerufen am Februar Memento vom US-Kette mit erstem Kino seit 35 Jahren orf.
April , abgerufen 5. Juli Memento vom Women in Saudi Arabia: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , Mitglieder der Arabischen Liga. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.
Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Faiza al-Obaidi, a biology professor, said: In , a woman became the first female anchor to appear on Saudi state television without a headscarf.
In , a woman was arrested for appearing in a viral video dressed in a short skirt and halter top walking around an ancient fort in Ushayqir.
She was released following an international outcry. Although she did not wear a crop top and short skirt, she was still arrested. Sexual segregation which keeps wives, sisters and daughters from contact with stranger men, follows from the extreme concern for female purity and family honour.
Social events are largely predicated on the separation of men and women; the mixing of non-kin men and women at parties or the like is extremely rare and limited to some of the modernist Western-educated families.
Most Saudi homes have one entrance for men and another for women. For non-related males to enter the female sections of a Saudi home is a violation of family honour.
Private space is associated with women while the public space, such as the living room, is reserved for men. Traditional house designs also use high walls, compartmentalized inner rooms, and curtains to protect the family and particularly women from the public.
Moreover, sex segregation is expected in public. In restaurants, banks and other public places in Saudi Arabia, women are required to enter and exit through special doors.
Non-mahram women and men must minimize social interaction. Companies traditionally have been expected to create all-female areas if they hire women.
Public transportation is segregated. Public places such as beaches and amusement parks are also segregated, sometimes by time, so that men and women attend at different hours.
Segregation is particularly strict in restaurants, since eating requires removal of the veil. Most restaurants in Saudi Arabia have "family" and "bachelor" sections, the latter for unmarried men or men without a family to accompany.
Women or men with their families have to sit in the family section. In the families section, diners are usually seated in separate rooms or behind screens and curtains.
Waiters are expected to give time for women to cover up before entering, although this practice is not always followed. Restaurants typically bar entrance to women who come without their husbands or mahram, although if they are allowed in, it will be to the family section.
Women are barred from waitressing, except at a few women-only restaurants. Western companies often enforce Saudi religious regulations in restaurants, which has prompted some Western activists to criticise those companies.
Exceptions to segregation rules sometimes include hospitals, medical colleges, and banks. The number of mixed-gender workplaces has increased since King Abdullah was crowned, although they are still not common.
As a practical matter, gender mixing is fairly common in parts of daily life. Women customarily take taxis driven by men.
Many households have maids, who mix with the unrelated men of the households. The opening of the first co-educational university in caused a debate over segregation.
A prominent cleric argued that segregation cannot be grounded in Sharia. He suggested those who advocate it are hypocrites: Mixing was part of normal life for the Ummah Muslim world and its societies Those who prohibit the mixing of the genders actually live it in their real lives, which is an objectionable contradiction as every fair-minded Muslim should follow Shariah judgments without excess or negligence.
In many Muslim houses—even those of Muslims who say mixing is haram forbidden —you can find female servants working around unrelated males.
In Khamisa Mohammad Sawadi, a year-old woman, was sentenced to 40 lashes and imprisonment for allowing a man to deliver bread to her directly in her home.
Sawadi, a non-citizen, was deported. In , a clerical adviser to the Royal court and Ministry of Justice issued a fatwa suggesting that women should provide breast milk to their employed drivers thereby making them relatives a concept known as Rada.
The fatwa was ridiculed by women campaigners. As part of its reform drive, the kingdom lifted the prohibition of women entering sports stadiums.
Women were previously barred by rules of segregation in public. The women were segregated from the male-only sections, and were seated in the "family section".
There are certain limitations to women doing business in the KSA. Although now able to drive motor vehicles, women are still required to have men swear for them in a court of law.
As real estate investor Loulwa al-Saidan complained,. For me to go to any government agency or to the court to buy or sell property, as a woman I am obligated to bring two men as witnesses to testify to my identity, and four male witnesses to testify that the first two are credible witnesses, and actually know me.
Where is any woman going to find six men to go with her to the court?! According to the International Labour Organization , Saudi women constitute When foreign expatriate workers are included in the total, the percentage of working Saudi women drops further to 6.
Employment for women has a number of restrictions under Saudi law and culture. According to the Saudi Labor Minister Dr. Ghazi Al-Qusaibi speaking in Women are allowed to work only in capacities in which they can serve women exclusively; there must be no contact or interaction with the opposite gender.
Most working women, however, out of necessity and practicality travel to work without a male relative and are alone with a driver.
Almost all of these women had college and graduate degrees, and were employed either in schools, where men were not permitted to teach girls; or in hospitals, because conservative families prefer that female doctors and nurse treat their wives, sisters, and daughters.
The banks employ women exclusively for every position except for the guards posted at the door to see that no men enter by mistake. While the Labor Minister Al-Qusaibi stressed the need for women to stay at home he also stated that "there is no option but to start [finding] jobs for the millions of women" in Saudi Arabia.
Many Saudi women also disliked discussing the subject of their undergarments with male shop clerks. The decrees came at "the height of the Arab Spring " and were "widely interpreted" by activists as an attempt to preempt "pro-democracy protests.
In November , religious police signed a letter stating that female employment was causing such a drastic increase in instances of ikhtilat , that "their job was becoming impossible.
When women do work jobs also held by men, they often find it difficult to break into full-time work with employee benefits like allowances, health insurance and social security.
According to a report in the Saudi Gazette , an employer told a female reporter that her health insurance coverage did not include care for childbirth, but that of a male employee included such coverage for his wife.
Saudi women are now seen developing professional careers as doctors, teachers and even business leaders, a process described by in by ABC News as "painfully slow.
Saudi Arabia opened some non-combat military jobs to women in February Allowing women to have greater visibility both in the armed forces and in other sectors not only promises to help diversify the economy, but could also help shift popular gender perceptions more broadly.
The quality of education is lower for females than males. Curricula and textbooks are updated less frequently, and teachers tend to be less qualified.
At the higher levels, males have better research facilities. Public education in Saudi Arabia is sex-segregated at all levels, and in general females and males do not attend the same school.
Religious belief about gender roles and the perception that education is more relevant for men has resulted in fewer educational opportunities for women.
Traditionally, women have been excluded from studying engineering, pharmacy , architecture, and law. Saudi women can also study any subject they wish while abroad.
Women are encouraged to study for service industries or social sciences. Education, medicine, public administration, natural sciences, social sciences, and Islamic studies are deemed appropriate for women.
Women attend classes with men, drive on campus, and are not required to veil themselves. Classes are taught in English.
The opening of the university caused public debate. Al-Ghamdi said that hadith , the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, makes no references to gender segregation, and mixing is therefore permitted under Sharia.
There were many calls for and rumors of his dismissal. Technology is a central part of higher education for women. Since there are few female lecturers, some universities use videoconferencing to have male professors teach female students without face-to-face contact.
The drop-out rate of girls increases around puberty, as they drop out of school upon marriage. Saudi Arabia was one of the few countries in the Olympics without a female delegation—although female athletes do exist.
In June , the Saudi Arabian Embassy in London announced that female athletes would compete in the Olympics in in London, England for the first time.
In , the Saudi government sanctioned sports for girls in private schools for the first time. In their article, "Saudi Arabia to let women into sports stadiums," Emanuella Grinberg and Jonny Hallam explain how the conservative Saudi adhere to the strictest interpretation of Sunni in the world.
Under their guardianship system, women can not travel or play sports without permission from their male guardians. Some of these strict rules in Saudi Arabia have started to change.
The Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman allowed women in every part of Saudi society to practice and ask for their rights.
They were seated in a specific section for families. Women must show the signed permission from a mahram close male relative—husband, son, father, uncle or grandson before she is free to travel, even inside Saudi Arabia.
Many of the laws controlling women apply to citizens of other countries who are relatives of Saudi men. Foreign-citizen women married to Saudi men, adult foreign-citizen women who are the unmarried daughters of Saudi fathers, and foreign-citizen boys under the age of 21 with a Saudi father.
In , Saudi women were first allowed to ride bicycles, although only around parks and other "recreational areas. Until June , women were not allowed to drive in Saudi Arabia, the only country in the world at the time with such a restriction.
Saudi Arabia has had no written ban on women driving, but Saudi law requires citizens to use a locally issued license while in the country.
Such licenses had not been issued to women, making it effectively illegal for women to drive. Critics rejected the ban on driving on the grounds that: On 6 November , 47 Saudi women, with valid licenses issued in other countries, drove the streets of Riyadh in protest of the ban on Saudi women drivers.
The women were suspended from jobs, had their passports confiscated, and were told not to speak to the press.
About a year after the protest, they returned to work and recovered their passports, but they were kept under surveillance and passed over for promotions.
In , advocates for the right of women to drive in Saudi Arabia collected about 1, signatures, hoping to persuade King Abdullah to lift the ban, but they were unsuccessful.
King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia said that he thought women would drive when the society was ready for it: I believe strongly in the rights of women. My mother is a woman.
My sister is a woman. My daughter is a woman. My wife is a woman. I believe the day will come when women will drive. In fact if you look at the areas of Saudi Arabia, the desert, and in the rural areas, you will find that women do drive.
The issue will require patience. In time I believe that it will be possible. I believe that patience is a virtue. And I hope that every woman that remains fighting for her rights receives them soon.
In September , a woman from Jeddah was sentenced to ten lashes by whip for driving a car. Previously when women were found driving they would normally be questioned and let go after they signed a pledge not to drive again.
Women are generally discouraged from using public transport. It is technically forbidden, but unenforced, for women to take taxis or hire private drivers, as it results in khalwa illegal mixing with a non- mahram man.
Where it is allowed, they must use a separate entrance and sit in a back section reserved for women;  however, the bus companies with the widest coverage in Riyadh and Jeddah do not allow women at all.
In early , the government began considering a proposal to create a nationwide women-only bus system. Starting in , ride-hailing company Careem started business in Saudi Arabia, with Uber arriving in the country in Women account for four-fifths of passengers for these ride-hailing companies.
The Saudi government has also supported these initiatives as a means of reducing unemployment and in its Vision initiative, has invested equity in both companies.
Ride-hailing has improved mobility for women and also promoted employment participation among them with its improved transport flexibility.
Saudi Arabia is a monarchy, with a Consultative Assembly shura of lawmakers appointed by the king. Prior to a September announcement by King Abdullah only men 30 years of age and older could serve as lawmakers.
According to his September announcement, women can now be appointed to the Consultative Assembly. In three women were named as deputy chairpersons of three committees.
They campaigned for the right to do so in the municipal elections, attempting unsuccessfully to register as voters.
Women are allowed to hold position on boards of chambers of commerce. In , two women were elected to the board of the Jeddah Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
In court, the testimony of one man equals that of two women. Female parties to court proceedings generally must deputize male relatives to speak on their behalf.
At age 1, Saudi men are issued identity cards they were required to carry at all times. Women had to produce two male relations to confirm their identity.
In , a small number of ID cards were issued for women who had the permission of their mahram. The cards were issued to the mahram, not the women, and explained by the government as a way to fight forgery and fraud.
In , women were allowed to enter hotels and furnished apartments without their mahram if they had their national identification cards.
Women do not need male permission to apply for the card, but do need it to travel abroad. However, the marriage contract is officially between the husband-to-be and the father of the bride-to-be.
Neither a man nor a woman can marry a non-Saudi citizen without official permission. Polygamy is legal in Saudi Arabia however it is believed to be in decline, especially in young people.
Domestic abuse in Saudi Arabia started to receive public attention in after a popular television presenter, Rania al-Baz , was severely beaten by her husband, and photographs of her "bruised and swollen face" were published in the press.
Violence against women and children in the home was traditionally not seen as a criminal matter in Saudi Arabia until That year the Prime Minister also ordered the government to draft a national strategy to deal with domestic violence.
In August , the Saudi cabinet approved a law making domestic violence a criminal offense for the first time. The law criminalizes psychological and sexual abuse , as well as physical abuse.
It also includes a provision obliging employees to report instances of abuse in the workplace to their employer.
There are no laws defining the minimum age for marriage in Saudi Arabia. Most religious authorities have justified the marriage of girls as young as nine and boys as young as fifteen.
It also negatively affects their health as they are at greater risk of dying from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth.
A news report documented the case of Shareefa, an abandoned child-bride. Shareefa was married to an year-old man when she was Her husband divorced her a few months after the marriage without her knowledge, and abandoned her at the age of The mother is attempting legal action, arguing that "Shareefa is now 21, she has lost more than 10 years of her life, her chance for an education, a decent marriage and normal life.
Who is going to take responsibility for what she has gone through? Female genital cutting is reported as rare, possibly occurring among minorities such as African immigrants.
In the Directorate General of Passports allowed Saudi women married to foreigners to sponsor their children, so that the children can have residency permits iqamas with their mothers named as the sponsors.
Iqamas also grant children the right to work in the private sector in Saudi Arabia while on the sponsorship of their mothers, and allow mothers to bring their children living abroad back to Saudi Arabia if they have no criminal records.
Foreign men married to Saudi women were also granted the right to work in the private sector while on the sponsorship of their wives on condition that the title on their iqamas should be written as "husband of a Saudi wife" and that they should have valid passports enabling them to return to their homes at any time.
Legally, children belong to their father, who has sole guardianship. If a divorce takes place, women may be granted custody of their young children until they reach the age of seven.
Older children are often awarded to the father or the paternal grandparents. Women cannot confer citizenship to children born to a non-Saudi Arabian father.
The inheritance share of women in Saudi is generally smaller than that to which men are entitled. The Quran states that daughters should inherit half as much as sons.
Under Sharia law, generally enforced by the government, the courts will punish a rapist with anything from flogging to execution. As there is no penal code in Saudi Arabia, there is no written law which specifically criminalizes rape or prescribes its punishment.
There is no prohibition against spousal or statutory rape. Migrant women, often working as domestic helpers, represent a particularly vulnerable group and their living conditions are sometimes slave-like and include physical oppression and rape.
In some cases, victims of sexual assault are punished for khalwa, being alone with an unrelated male, prior to the assault.
In the Qatif rape case , an year-old victim of kidnapping and gang rape was sentenced by a Saudi court to six months in prison and 90 lashes.
She was also punished for trying to influence the court through the media. According to Human Rights Watch, one of the rapists filmed the assault with his mobile phone but the judges refused to allow it as evidence.
The United Nations criticized social attitudes and the system of male guardianship, which deter women from reporting crimes. The UN report argued that women are prevented from escaping abusive environments because of their lack of legal and economic independence.
They are further oppressed, according to the UN, by practices surrounding divorce and child custody, the absence of a law criminalizing violence against women, and inconsistencies in the application of laws and procedures.
The case prompted Egyptian-American journalist Mona Eltahawy to comment "What kind of God would punish a woman for rape?
That is a question that Muslims must ask of Saudi Arabia because unless we challenge the determinedly anti-women teachings of Islam in Saudi Arabia, that kingdom will always get a free pass.
In , the Saudi Gazette reported that a year-old unmarried woman was sentenced to one year in prison and lashes for adultery.
She had been gang-raped, become pregnant, and tried unsuccessfully to abort the fetus. The flogging was postponed until after the delivery.
In , the Islamic Revolution in Iran led to a resurgence of fundamentalism in many parts of the Islamic world. Fundamentalists sought to repel Westernization, and governments sought to defend themselves against revolution.
In Saudi Arabia, fundamentalists occupied the Grand Mosque Masjid al-Haram and demanded a more conservative Islamic state, including "an end of education of women.
Newspapers were discouraged from publishing images of women; the Interior Ministry discouraged women from employment, including expatriates. Scholarships for women to study abroad were declined.
Wearing the abaya in public became mandatory. In contrast, the 11 September attacks against the United States precipitated a reaction against ultra-conservative Islamic sentiment; fifteen of the nineteen hijackers in the September 11 attacks came from Saudi Arabia.
Since then, the mutaween have become less active, and reformists have been appointed to key government posts. The government says it has withdrawn support from schools deemed extremist, and moderated school textbooks.
The government under King Abdullah was regarded as moderately progressive. Gender segregation was relaxed, but remained the norm. Critics described the reform as far too slow, and often more symbolic than substantive.
Conservative clerics have successfully rebuffed attempts to outlaw child marriage. The few female government officials have had minimal power.
Norah Al-Faiz, the first female cabinet member, will not appear without her veil, appear on television without permission, or talk to male colleagues except by videoconferencing.
It ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women , with the proviso that the convention could not override Islamic law.
However, government officials told the United Nations that there is no contradiction with Islam. The degree of compliance between government commitments and practice is disputed.
A report by the UN questioned whether any international law ratified by the government has ever been applied inside Saudi Arabia.
Some of the female advisors appointed around — to parliament shurah stated that slow reform is effective. Nora Alyousif, "The Saudi leadership is working hard on reform and supporting women Seventy years ago we were completely isolated from the world.
The changes which are taking place are unmistakable, and we have finally started opening up. Maha Almuneef said, "There are small steps now.
There are giant steps coming. But most Saudis have been taught the traditional ways. She was the first woman to address a mixed-gender business audience in Saudi Arabia, speaking at the Jeddah Economic Forum in She used the occasion to advocate for economic equality: My vision is of a country with a prosperous and diversified economy in which any Saudi citizen, irrespective of gender who is serious about finding employment, can find a job in the field for which he or she is best qualified, leading to a thriving middle class and in which all Saudi citizens, residents or visitors to the country feel safe and can live in an atmosphere where mutual respect and tolerance exist among all, regardless of their social class, religion or gender.
It is highly punishable. Mixing of men and women is a reason for greater decadence and adultery. Wajeha al-Huwaider is often described as the most radical and prominent feminist activist in Saudi Arabia.
She described the goals of the organization: Among the issues that have been raised, and that are of the utmost importance, are: We need laws to protect women from these aggressions and violations of their rights as human beings.
This is our ultimate goal In Saudi Arabia registered its first female trainee lawyer, Arwa al-Hujaili,  who is also the first Saudi woman to attain an aircraft dispatcher license.
Sameera Aziz is the first Saudi media personality who aimed to make a Bollywood film after opening her production house in Bollywood.
Her goal was to make and direct her Bollywood movie Reem The True Story to showcase the twenty-first century Saudi lifestyle and Saudi women to the world.
She was highly appreciated by progressive Saudi minds and known as the first Saudi director in Bollywood.
Saudis frequently debate how to bring about change. Immediately following Operation Desert Storm in , Saudi women launched a campaign for more rights.
Forty-seven women drove illegally through Riyadh, in protest against the ban on driving. Activists presented a petition to King Fahd requesting "basic legal and social rights.
Fundamentalists demanded strict punishment of the women who had driven in protest, and denounced activists as "whores. Arguments in favour of slow change include those of history professor Hatoon al-Fassi.
But we are proud to say that something is going on in Saudi Arabia. We are not really free, but it is possible for women to express themselves as never before.
Arguments in favour of faster change and more activism include those of Sumayya Jabarti, editor of the Arab News.
Jabarti says there are too many women with decision-making power who are like "queen bees," doing nothing to question the status quo.
Change is not coming, we are taking it I think we are building it through the route taken Most of the time, we are walking in place.
In —, Saudi women opposed mixed workplaces and women driving,  and a majority of women did not think women should hold political office.
Conservative cleric Mohsen al-Awajy says the country must resist secularization: They can do nothing without Islam.
There is no Saudi Arabia without Islam. Princess Loulwa Al-Faisal describes herself as a conservative, advocating change that is gradual and consistent with Islam.
We are preserving it There are problems mostly with the way the law is interpreted, mostly in the courts, but those are changing. For several decades, non-Saudi women suffered job discrimination because there was a popular belief that organizations and corporations were not allowed to hire non-Saudi women.
She argued that this was discrimination and that it would be in the interest of Saudi industry to employ non-Saudi women to fill personnel gaps.
In the Saudi government sanctioned sports for girls in private schools for the first time. A royal decree passed in May gave women access to government services such as education and healthcare without the need for the consent of a male guardian.
The order also stated that it should only be allowed if it does not contradict the Sharia system. Gender segregation has produced great enthusiasm for innovative communications technology, especially when it is anonymous.
Saudis were early adopters of Bluetooth technology, as men and women use it to communicate secretly. Saudi women use online social networking as a way to share ideas they cannot share publicly.
As one woman put it:. In Saudi Arabia, we live more of a virtual life than a real life. I know people who are involved in on-line romances with people they have never met in real life Some conservative clerics called for Facebook to be banned because it causes gender mingling.
One cleric called it a "door to lust" and cause of "social strife. As evidence, they cite restrictions on travel, fields of study, choice of profession, access to the courts, and political speech.
Some commentators have argued that Saudi gender policies constitute a crime against humanity , and warrant intervention from the international community.
They criticize the U. Mary Kaldor views gender apartheid in Saudi Arabia as similar to that enforced by the Taliban in Afghanistan.
Critics also blame Western corporations that cooperate in enforcing segregation. In a column, Washington Post editor Colbert I. As with Saudi Arabia, white-ruled South Africa viewed external criticism as a violation of its sovereignty and interference with its internal affairs.
King wonders why there is nothing like the Sullivan Principles for gender-based discrimination. Cultural relativism is the root of activist inaction, according to feminists such as Azar Majedi , Pamela Bone, and Maryam Namazie.
Majedi and Namazie, both born in Iran, consider cultural relativism racist: We are no better than they are. We should not impose our values on them.
We can criticise only our own. The problem with this mindset is that, with all its faults, Western culture is clearly, objectively, better.
The family is the kernel of Saudi society, and its members shall be brought up on the basis of the Islamic faith, and loyalty and obedience to Allah, His Messenger, and to guardians; respect for and implementation of the law, and love of and pride in the homeland and its glorious history as the Islamic faith stipulates.